Dynamic Feedback, Real-Time Control, & Refreshing Content

The Trio of UI Engagement

As we know, Octalysis is a powerful tool in the realm of gamification, and the purpose of this post is to delve into three unique but interconnected Game Design Techniques, all of which fall under the broad umbrella of Feedback Mechanics. These game design techniques are:

  1. Dynamic Feedback (Game Design Technique #12)
  2. Real-Time Control (Game Design Technique #52)
  3. Refreshing Content (Game Design Technique #73)

We’ll start by discussing Dynamic Feedback, the 12th game design technique in our list. Looking at the Octalysis Strategy Dashboard, one can see that every Desired Action or behavior that we as designers want to encourage in our users leads them towards a Win-State.

Gamification Strategy Dashboard

In this Win-State, a multitude of emotional rewards are brought into play. Crucial to the facilitation of these rewards and the journey towards the Win-State are Feedback Mechanics.

This is where Dynamic Feedback comes in.

Dynamic Feedback (Game Design Technique #12)

Usually, when we perform a Desired Action, the faster the feedback comes in, the more gratifying and interesting it usually becomes. There are many software interfaces where you do something, click submit, and the page refreshes, providing you with feedback. This still requires a submitted reload.

The Dynamic Feedback Game Design Technique is different. As you perform the Desired Action, something changes dynamically in front of you. You don’t have to submit or reload. As you do something, things are being modified.

For instance, if you have a long form to fill out across many pages, an interesting application of Dynamic Feedback would be a widget that gives real-time feedback every time you answer one of the questions.

This feedback could be trivia such as, “Hey, did you know this platform has been rated number one in Europe?” or if they input their birthday, it could say, “Awesome! We love Taurus’!” If they put in their region, it could respond, “Oh, did you know there’s 20,000 people who are from the Fremont on our platform just like you?”

So, as you start performing these different Desired Actions, Dynamic Feedback shows up. This makes you want to do more of that Desired Action. It prompts you to think, “Hey, that’s interesting. Let me fill in the next text box to see what it will say.”

This gives you a bit more of that Core Drive 3: Empowerment of Creativity and Feedback. When you exert effort, you see custom feedback that is personalized based on what you did. It’s not just dummy content for everyone; it’s customized for your input.

This then obviously connects to Core Drive 7: Unpredictability and Curiosity. It makes you want to find out what the next dynamic feedback will be as you perform more desired actions.”

Of course, Dynamic Feedback can also incorporate various other Core Drives, such as indicating that you’re close to receiving a reward (CD6) or revealing that many friends like you or that you’re similar to others on the platform (CD5). The key aspect is that this feedback is dynamic, appearing as you perform actions, keeping you engaged.

Dynamic Feedback is also found in real-life interactions. When conversing with others, we receive dynamic feedback through their facial expressions and body language. This makes the conversation more engaging, especially for those who are sensitive to these cues or possess empathy.

People may adjust their speech based on this feedback, making the experience more engaging even if they’ve had the same conversation many times.

Moving on to Game Design Technique #52: Real-Time Control.

Real Time Control (Game Design Technique #52)

This technique, common in most video games, necessitates constant engagement and control. It’s a series of Desired Actions that demand your ongoing attention. Think of a game where you must continuously maneuver an airplane, car, or character, jumping and dodging obstacles as you go. Reflexes are crucial here, and the speed of response is paramount.

Real-Time Control naturally incorporates Core Drive 3: Empowerment of Creativity and Feedback. You’re in full control, making Meaningful Choices. Immediate feedback is essential in these scenarios. If you’re controlling something in real time without receiving corresponding feedback, it’s akin to flying blind—a rather unpleasant experience.

Take, for instance, a toy where you move a metal ring through a metal bar, up and down. If the ring touches the core, a jarring sound is emitted. Clearly, this toy necessitates Real-Time Control. The same principle applies to software products, especially ones incorporating drag-and-drop interfaces.

Look at To-Do Lists. You rearrange items on your list, and most likely, you do it through drag-and-drop. Why not use descending arrows or number assignments to order your tasks? The answer lies in providing Real-Time Control—it’s intuitive and satisfying to hold an item, drag it, and drop it where you please.

Let’s say you’re arranging a dashboard. You have multiple sections, areas where you can perform actions. You can drag and drop these elements around, and in real time, you see the other sections adjust. This sensation of Real-Time Control can lead to a sense of satisfaction and empowerment.

In 2006, I started a virtual world company called Future Delivery. The goal was to have users roam a digital world and network professionally. Virtual Worlds and so-called Metaverse experiences allow real-time character control that is engaging and fun. This is like playing with drones or remote-controlled cars – there’s no specific goal, but the control itself is interesting and enjoyable.

There are also radar speed signs on many roadsides, showing your driving speed without issuing a ticket. These signs provide real-time feedback about the “game” you’re playing—how fast you’re driving. You realize that speeding up decreases your “score,” while slowing down improves it. This gives you some Real-Time Control over your experience.

The limitation here is that the actual speed limit may not be clear. Some people may even try to push their speed to the maximum to see how high they can go. This also highlights Core Drive 3 (Empowerment): people generally feel happier when they have Real-Time Control. But with this empowerment, they might not always play the game as the designers intended.

This is why games like Grand Theft Auto have such appeal—they offer significant power and freedom, allowing players to do as they wish and see the consequences.

Refreshing Content (Game Design Technique #73)

Refreshing Content revolves around constantly changing and updating content to keep users captivated. Unlike other techniques we’ve discussed, refreshing content doesn’t necessarily tie to any Desired Actions or provide dynamic feedback. It serves as an independent feature that automatically refreshes itself, maintaining users’ interest.

To grasp the concept of Refreshing Content, think about instances when you load a program and it presents a variety of jokes while loading. Similarly, when using platforms like Slack, you may encounter helpful tips during loading periods. These are examples of Refreshing Content design. The primary purpose of Refreshing Content is to entice users to take Desired Actions. It acts as a precursor to the subsequent mechanics that follow user engagement.

Imagine visiting a website where the content refreshes with new and interesting material as you browse. This constant change not only keeps users engaged but also encourages them to take Desired Actions.

Refreshing Content primarily aims to capture attention. It is akin to dynamic billboards in shopping centers that continuously change, drawing our gaze and piquing our curiosity. The allure of Refreshing Content lies in Core Drive 7: Unpredictability and Curiosity.

You may have noticed this behavior in yourself when switching TV channels repeatedly, which is all driven by Core Drive 7. Likewise, website carousels that continually change their banners exemplify the use of refreshing content.

Refreshing content can also employ emotional imagery, amazing animations, transitions, or even parallax effects as you scroll through a page. These eye-catching features create a sense of constant change and motivate users to interact.

While the initial part of refreshing content focuses on captivating users, the subsequent section involves Dynamic Feedback. Here, users take Desired Actions, such as scrolling down a page, which triggers content to appear, fade in or out, or resume in different ways. This interactive component constitutes Dynamic Feedback. However, the initial portion that entices users to engage is the Refreshing Content itself.

A prime example of Refreshing Content can be found in the Diablo franchise, a popular role-playing game (RPG).

Diablo, often referred to as a hack and slash game, primarily involves killing monsters to progress rather than developing complex character growth, hobbies, or professions like World of Warcraft.

Most RPGs feature consistent maps and environments, leading to predictable gameplay. However, in Diablo, the original innovation of a random map generator revolutionized the experience. Each time players reached a stage, the content refreshed, presenting new walls, doors, monster placements, and even randomized monster abilities.

This introduced an element of surprise, transforming each visit into a new journey, an exploration process brimming with uncertainty. Despite consistent difficulty levels, players felt like they were embarking on a fresh adventure, utilizing creativity to overcome challenges and discover new routes. The random map generator became a key factor in Diablo’s high replayability, with some players revisiting the game for over a decade.

These Game Design Techniques, including refreshing content, are relatively simple and primarily serve as variations of feedback mechanics to engage users.

Implementing these techniques in different websites, apps, or experiences can be relatively straightforward. The key is to understand the distinctions between Dynamic Feedback, Real-Time Control, and Refreshing Content.

It would be fascinating to see examples of these techniques in various contexts and discern whether they primarily employ Dynamic Feedback or Refreshing Content.

Occasionally, experiences also offer real-time control, which adds an extra layer of interest. Exploring both successful and unsuccessful implementations of these techniques would provide valuable insights.

In conclusion, these three Game Design Techniques serve as a valuable game design technique that entices users through constant updates and changes. Their ability to engage users’ curiosity and provide dynamic experiences makes it an effective tool in creating captivating and replayable games.

How to Design Effective Leaderboards: Boosting Motivation and Engagement

Leaderboard Design (Game Technique #3)

Leaderboards have long been one of the most popular and widely used game design techniques in gamification. As a powerful tool for encouraging competition, showcasing achievement, and driving user engagement, leaderboards can add significant value to an experience when designed and implemented effectively.

However, despite their potential to motivate and inspire, leaderboards are often misused or poorly designed, leading to a negative impact on user experience and even demoralizing those who find themselves at the bottom of the rankings.

In my book, “Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges, and Leaderboards,” I emphasize the importance of looking beyond these common game design elements to create more meaningful and engaging experiences. While the book explores a variety of techniques for effective gamification, it’s essential to recognize that leaderboards still have a vital role to play when designed correctly.

By learning how to create leaderboards that motivate the most significant number of users, we can enhance the overall experience and harness the full potential of this powerful gamification tool. In this blog post, we will delve into the art of designing effective leaderboards, ensuring that they contribute positively to user motivation, engagement, and satisfaction, ultimately elevating the entire gamified experience.

Understanding the Pitfalls of Traditional Leaderboards

Traditional leaderboards, ranking users from first to last, can motivate the top 5-10% of users but often demoralize the rest. This is because users in the middle or bottom tiers may feel like they have no chance of catching up or making significant progress. To create a more inclusive and motivating experience, we need to rethink how leaderboards are designed and focus on fostering urgent optimism.

Fostering Urgent Optimism

Coined by Jane McGonigal, “urgent optimism” refers to users’ belief that they can succeed if they act quickly. This concept is crucial for creating a sense of motivation and drive in users.

Instead of showing users their rank as a meaningless number, display their position as a percentile. For example, showing a user that they are in the top 24% rather than telling them they are rank 42,372 gives them a sense of accomplishment and pride in their achievements.

Utilizing Micro Leaderboards

Instead of one massive leaderboard, create micro leaderboards that group users by region or other relevant criteria. This approach makes the competition more manageable and relevant to users’ experiences.

For instance, a user may be more motivated to improve their standing within their city or neighborhood than trying to climb a global leaderboard. By breaking the competition into smaller, more relevant groups, users can feel a stronger sense of connection and investment in their progress.

Implementing Social Leaderboards

Social leaderboards compare users’ performance to their friends and family members. This type of competition can be more motivating, as users may not want to lose to someone they know personally. By allowing users to compete with their social circles, they may feel a stronger drive to improve their performance and enjoy the experience more.

Keeping Leaderboards Refreshing

Long-running leaderboards can discourage new users who feel they can’t catch up to the top performers. To combat this issue, regularly refresh leaderboards to keep users engaged and motivated. Consider implementing weekly or monthly leaderboards, which give users a fresh start and the opportunity to compete on a level playing field with others.

In addition to time-based refreshes, consider incorporating event-based leaderboards. These leaderboards could focus on specific challenges or achievements, giving users more opportunities to excel in different areas and keep their experience fresh and engaging.

Showing Meaningful Information

When designing a leaderboard, it’s essential to strike a balance between providing enough information to motivate users and not overwhelming them with too much data. Display the top 10 users by name for status recognition but not their stats. Instead, show the user’s own stats and those of five users above and below them. This keeps the focus on achievable goals and promotes urgent optimism.

By limiting the information displayed on the leaderboard, users can concentrate on their immediate competition rather than feeling overwhelmed by the performance of top-ranked players. This approach encourages users to focus on improving their own performance and competing with those closest to them on the leaderboard.

Focusing on Reachable Goals

Ensure users can see that they have a realistic chance of reaching the next milestone or improving their rank. Avoid showing the gap between a user’s performance and the leaderboard’s top performers, as this can be demoralizing. Instead, highlight the progress users have made and the steps they can take to continue improving.

Encourage users to set personal goals, such as beating their previous best or surpass

ing a friend’s score. These smaller, more attainable goals can help maintain motivation and engagement, even if the user is not in the top tier of the leaderboard.

Incentivizing Participation and Improvement

Beyond leaderboards, consider implementing other reward systems to incentivize users to participate and improve. For example, offer badges, achievements, or other virtual rewards for reaching specific milestones or completing challenges.

These rewards can complement leaderboards by providing additional motivation and recognition for users at all skill levels.

Encouraging Collaboration and Community

While competition can be a strong motivator, collaboration and community can also inspire users to improve and engage with your platform.

Consider incorporating features that allow users to collaborate, share strategies, and offer support to one another. By fostering a sense of community, users may feel more motivated to participate and contribute positively to the overall experience.


Designing effective leaderboards is a nuanced process that requires careful consideration of user motivation and engagement. By fostering urgent optimism, creating micro and social leaderboards, keeping the experience fresh, showing meaningful information, focusing on reachable goals, incentivizing participation, and encouraging collaboration and community, you can create a leaderboard that motivates and engages users of all skill levels.

With these strategies in mind, you can transform your leaderboard from a potentially demoralizing feature into a powerful tool that drives user motivation and engagement, leading to a more enjoyable and rewarding experience for all.

Supercharge Your Gamified System: Boosters for Greater Engagement and Success

Hello, fellow gamification enthusiasts! Today, I want to discuss an essential game design technique that can supercharge your gamified systems and drive user engagement to new heights: Boosters. In this blog post, we’ll explore what Boosters are, why they’re so effective, and how to apply them across various industries and platforms.

What are Boosters (Game Technique #31)?

A Booster is a reward that allows users to perform the Desired Actions in a gamified system more effectively, efficiently, or enjoyably. Examples of Boosters include power-ups in video games like Super Mario’s star or mushroom, which enhance the player’s abilities and make the gameplay more engaging.

Boosters differ from other rewards like status or external benefits (such as cash or discounts) because they directly facilitate and enhance the user’s experience. This makes them an ideal tool for driving long-term engagement and motivation in gamified systems.

Why are Boosters so effective?

Boosters are effective because they create a positive feedback loop in which users perform Desired Actions to earn rewards (like currency), use the rewards to obtain Boosters, and then use the Boosters to perform the Desired Actions more effectively or efficiently. This loop keeps users engaged and motivates them to continue taking Desired Actions.

Additionally, Boosters can help address some of the limitations of other reward types like status. For example, when people achieve high status, they may feel like they’ve proven their abilities and stop engaging with the gamified system. Boosters, on the other hand, encourage users to keep engaging by making the Desired Actions more enjoyable and efficient.

Examples of Boosters in various industries:

Example 1: Online Marketplaces

When working with eBay, we explored ways to enhance user engagement and encourage sellers to complete Desired Actions, such as uploading more than four photos, allowing print shipping labels, and communicating within 24 hours. Traditional rewards like discounts and free shipping seemed like an obvious choice, but we wanted to think outside the box and consider Boosters that could enhance the user experience even more.

After brainstorming, we came up with the idea of offering sellers a “seller’s kit” as a Booster. The kit could include a portable backdrop that would allow them to take better pictures of their products, making the process of uploading high-quality photos more enjoyable and efficient. Additionally, the kit could contain a portable scale, which would make it easier for sellers to weigh items for shipping and print accurate shipping labels. These Boosters not only improve the user experience but also encourage sellers to complete Desired Actions more efficiently.

By providing Boosters that help users perform the Desired Actions better, eBay can create a more engaging and rewarding experience for its sellers. This not only drives long-term engagement and loyalty but also increases the likelihood of sellers completing the Desired Actions, ultimately benefitting both the users and the platform itself.

Example 2: Online Learning Platforms

Online learning platforms can significantly benefit from incorporating Boosters into their reward structures. For instance, a platform might offer a Booster that temporarily increases the speed at which users earn points or badges for completing course activities. This could encourage users to engage more with the platform and complete activities more quickly, leading to accelerated learning and progress.

Another Booster idea for online learning platforms is to provide users with access to advanced note-taking tools or interactive mind maps. These tools can help users better understand and retain the information they’re learning, making the learning experience more enjoyable and efficient. As users see the positive impact of these Boosters on their learning, they’ll be more likely to continue engaging with the platform and taking the Desired Actions.

By offering Boosters that directly improve the learning experience, online learning platforms can increase user engagement, satisfaction, and overall success. This not only benefits the users but also helps the platforms achieve their Business Metrics, such as increased course completion rates and user referrals.

Example 3: Fitness Apps

Fitness apps can also greatly benefit from the use of Boosters to motivate users and improve their workout experiences. For example, a fitness app might offer a Booster that doubles the number of points users earn for every workout completed within a specific time frame. This encourages users to exercise more frequently and consistently, leading to better fitness results and increased engagement with the app.

Another potential Booster for fitness apps could involve offering users access to personalized workout plans or premium video content. These Boosters can make the workout experience more enjoyable and tailored to the user’s needs, encouraging them to stick with their fitness goals and continue using the app. Users who see positive results from their workouts and enjoy the process are more likely to recommend the app to others, driving new user acquisition.

Incorporating Boosters into a fitness app’s reward structure can lead to increased user engagement, motivation, and long-term success. By offering rewards that directly enhance the workout experience and help users achieve their fitness goals, fitness apps can create a loyal user base that consistently engages with the platform and recommends it to others.

Incorporating Boosters in your gamified system:

When designing your gamified system, always consider incorporating Boosters into your reward structure. Doing so can help create a feedback loop that keeps users coming back for more, driving long-term engagement and motivation.

To effectively use Boosters, ensure that they directly facilitate and enhance the Desired Actions you want your users to take. By understanding your users’ needs and preferences and offering them Boosters that improve their experience, you can create a more engaging, motivating, and successful system.

In conclusion, incorporating Boosters into the reward structure of your product, platform, or service can greatly enhance user engagement, satisfaction, and loyalty. By offering rewards that directly improve the user experience and facilitate the completion of Desired Actions, you create a more engaging and motivating environment for your users. This not only benefits the users themselves but also helps you achieve your Business Metrics and drive long-term success.

As we’ve seen with examples from eBay, online learning platforms, and fitness apps, the key to designing effective Boosters is to identify rewards that empower users, making their experience more enjoyable and efficient. By understanding the unique needs of your users and the Desired Actions you want them to take, you can create Boosters that resonate with your audience and drive meaningful results.

In a world where user engagement and satisfaction are critical to the success of any product or service, integrating Boosters into your reward strategy can give you a competitive edge. Start exploring how you can leverage Boosters in your own offerings, and watch as your users become more engaged, motivated, and loyal, propelling your business to new heights.

Using Octalysis to Determine the Right Game Design Techniques

Hey Octalysis enthusiasts!

In this blog post, we’ll dive deeper into how to use the Octalysis Framework to decide which game design elements to implement in your projects. This approach can help you create a more engaging and motivating experience for your players, regardless of their preferred play style or motivations. Let me guide you through the Octalysis Framework and how it can lead you to the right game design techniques for your project, making it a success.

Understanding the Octalysis Framework: The Octalysis Framework is a powerful tool I’ve developed for understanding player motivation and psychology. It consists of 8 Core Drives that influence player behavior and engagement. These Core Drives are the essential building blocks for creating captivating and immersive experiences for your players.

To effectively use the Octalysis Framework, you should start by defining your business metrics. Consider the primary goals you want to achieve with your project and how you’ll measure its success. Next, identify your players – the target audience you want to engage and entertain. Think about their demographics, preferences, and motivations.

Determine the desired actions you want your players to take within the game or experience. These actions should align with your business metrics and player motivations. Outline the feeder mechanics, triggers, rewards, and incentives that will encourage these desired actions, keeping in mind how they connect to your players’ Core Drives.

Identifying Player Types and Core Drives: To tailor your game design to your target audience, it’s essential to identify your player types and their motivations. You can use Richard Bartle’s Four Player Types: Achievers, Socializers, Killers, and Explorers, as a starting point. Each player type has unique preferences and motivations, which can guide your design decisions.

Achievers are goal-oriented players who enjoy completing tasks and achieving recognition for their accomplishments. Socializers find the most enjoyment in interacting with others and forming connections within the game world. Killers thrive on competition and asserting dominance over other players. Explorers love discovering new areas, uncovering secrets, and solving puzzles.

By understanding what motivates each player type, you can focus on the Core Drives that resonate with them the most. This targeted approach will help you create experiences that cater to your players’ desires and keep them engaged.

Balancing Core Drives for Different Player Types: Incorporating different Core Drives into your design can create a well-rounded experience that appeals to a broader range of players. For instance, executives often assume competition is motivating for everyone, but that’s not always the case. Competitions and leaderboards may not be effective for Socializers or those who are not competitive by nature. Instead, focusing on Core Drive 5: Social Influence & Relatedness, may yield better results by incorporating social elements like Group Quests, Social Treasures, and opportunities for players to appreciate each other.

Similarly, Achievers may be more motivated by Core Drive 2: Development & Accomplishment, which involves making progress, developing skills, and achieving mastery. Design elements like leveling systems, skill trees, and clear goals can cater to this drive.

Addressing Monotonous Tasks: Monotonous tasks can hinder player engagement, but incorporating Core Drive 7: Unpredictability & Curiosity, can help combat this issue. Implementing game design techniques like mystery boxes, slot machine mechanics, or Easter eggs can inject excitement and surprise into repetitive tasks, making the experience more engaging and enjoyable.

For instance, you could incorporate a randomized reward system that gives players a chance to receive a rare item or bonus each time they complete a repetitive task. This sense of anticipation and surprise can help maintain player interest and motivation, even in the face of monotonous tasks.

Choosing and Combining Game Design Elements:

Once you’ve identified the Core Drives that resonate with your players and align with the desired actions, you can begin selecting appropriate game design elements. Keep in mind that you don’t need to stick to a predefined list of techniques; feel free to experiment with different combinations and hybrids.

To create a rich and diverse experience, consider incorporating elements from multiple Core Drives. For example, you might include a leveling system (Core Drive 2: Development & Accomplishment) alongside a social sharing feature (Core Drive 5: Social Influence & Relatedness) to cater to both Achievers and Socializers. By combining elements from various Core Drives, you’ll create a more engaging and appealing experience for a broader range of players.

The key is to understand the Core Drives, not just memorize game design techniques. With a solid grasp of the Core Drives and a range of game design examples, you’ll be better equipped to develop new, innovative techniques that suit your project’s needs.

Evaluating and Iterating on Your Design: As you implement your chosen game design elements, it’s crucial to continuously evaluate their effectiveness and make adjustments as needed. Gather feedback from players and analyze data on player behavior to determine which elements are resonating with your audience and which may need improvement.

Don’t be afraid to iterate on your design, as even small adjustments can have a significant impact on player engagement and enjoyment. Embrace the iterative process and be open to learning from your players’ experiences to create the best possible experience for your target audience.

Remember, designing a successful game or experience is an ongoing process. Stay flexible and willing to adapt your design as you learn more about your players and their preferences.

Finding the right Core Drives and Game Techniques

The Octalysis Framework offers valuable insights into player motivation and psychology, allowing you to create more engaging experiences. By understanding your players, identifying their Core Drives, and selecting appropriate game design elements, you’ll be well on your way to crafting an enjoyable and successful project.

Keep learning and experimenting with the Octalysis Framework to continue refining your game design skills. Embrace the iterative process, and don’t be afraid to make adjustments based on player feedback and data. By staying in tune with your players and their motivations, you’ll create experiences that resonate with your audience and drive your project toward success.

I’ll be here to support you every step of the way as you explore the power of the Octalysis Framework and unlock the potential of your game design projects. Together, we can create engaging and enjoyable experiences that captivate players and make a lasting impact.